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General Plan

The Hydroelectric Project of the Litani River:

  • Litani River Authority implemented the hydroelectric plan in the period between 1962 and 1968.
  • The construction of the Qaraoun dam, with a storage capacity of 220 million m3, included three tunnels (30km) and three Penstocks, basins and facilities, in addition to three power Plants in Markaba, Awali and Joun with a total power of 192 MW (10% of total installed power generation in Lebanon). Such facilities were operated and still have on average an annual production capacity of 500 million kilowatts/hour; during abundant year, the total production exceeded 1 billion kilowatt/hour.

Water Balance and Storage Operations

  • The production of hydroelectric power in the Litani HPP depends on the amount of annual rainfall in the Upper River Basin behind the dam; the water year starts in October of the year and ends in May of next year (8 wet months); during this period the water is stored in the Qaraoun lake.
  • This period is also considered to be the annual period for the maintenance of the HPP, during which some production units are shut down to reduce the consumption of water stored in the Qaraoun lake, thus allowing a greater storage of the water flowing into the lake in winter.
  • In summer, Litani’s power plants operate at full capacity, taking into account that it is mandatory to maintain the water reserve in the lake behind the dam at around 50 million m3. This reserve shall remain behind the dam until the end of every year in order to use it in case of drought the following year; the amount of water arriving at Qaraoun Lake varies from year to year in response to rainfall, this quantity varies between 700 Mm3 during the abundant years and 60 Mm3 during the dry years, but on average it is almost 350 Mm3.


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